As the world’s second-largest country, the entire Canada does not have a uniform geography. Canada’s geography depends on which part of Canada you are. It is a combination of mountains, forests, rivers, and lakes.

Roughly 30% of Canada’s total landmass is occupied by forest. With over 2 million lakes covering 7% of the land area, lakes and rivers are common features in many parts of Canada. Northwest Territories’ Great Bear Lake is the largest lake. It is estimated that Canada is home to one-seventh of the world’s fresh water. Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world. It would take about four and a half years to walk around the country non-stop.

Find out more about Canada’s mountain ranges.

Explore Canada’s national parks.


The climate of Canada is as diverse as its geography with different parts of Canada experiencing varying weather conditions, from season to season and region to region. While the west coast of British Columbia could be temperate, in the north, there could be long and cold winters. Landlocked areas except Southwestern Ontario are usually warm during summer. Some parts of Western Canada could be semi-dry. While some parts of Vancouver Island experience rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers.

Many Canadians live around the country’s southern border, where there are crisp autumns, warm springs, and hot summers for about seven months. Generally, temperatures may drop below 0°C for a few months every year, Canada has four separate seasons: spring (March-May), summer (June–August), fall (September–October), and winter (November–February).

 Find out more about each region’s climate